Maurice Richard Trophy

Александр Овечкин | Forbes.ru

Отец — бывший футболист, мать — двухкратная чемпионка Олимпийских игр в составе сборной СССР по баскетболу. В возврасте двух лет ему купили первый хоккейный комплект (пластмассовые шлем, клюшку и шайбу) в магазине детских игрушек. С 8-летнего возраста занимается хоккеем, в 16 лет дебютировал в российской хоккейной Суперлиге в составе московского «Динамо». В 2004 году был выбран под первым номером на драфте НХЛ. С сезона 2005/2006 годов играет в НХЛ в клубе Washington Capitals. В 2006 году выиграл Calder Memorial Trophy, приз лучшему новичку НХЛ.   В 2008 году подписал первый в истории НХЛ контракт на сумму более $100 млн. За 13 лет игры за клуб Washington Capitals получит $124 млн. Самый успешный в коммерческом смысле российский хоккеист: заключал многолетние рекламные контракты с Nike, Gatorade, Bauer. В 2017 году впервые за пять сезонов Овечкин не выиграл Maurice Richard Trophy, награду, вручаемую хоккеисту, забившему больше всего шайб в регулярном сезоне НХЛ. Обладателем награды стал канадец Сидни Кросби, на счету которого было 44 шайбы. У Овечкина – всего 33. Противостояние Овечкина и Кросби началось в сезоне 2005-2006 годов, когда Овечкина выбрали новичком года. В этом году Pittsburgh Penguins Сидни Кросби и Евгения Малкина опять обыграли команду Овечкина Washington Capitals в 7-матчевой серии и выиграли Кубок Стэнли второй год подряд. Теперь у Кросби и Малкина – три Кубка Стэнли, у Овечкина – ни одного. В честь своего 100-летия НХЛ опубликовала список 100 величайших хоккеистов, игравших в сильнейшей лиге мира. Овечкин, набравший 1000-е очко в сезоне 2016/2017, стал одним из 4 россиян, вошедших в список (вместе с Сергеем Федоровым, Павлом Буре и Павлом Дацюком). Цитата «Вижу свою цель и хочу ее добиться. А по жизни не нервничаю. Разве что за рулем». (Tatler, 2015). Профайл Запросы в «Яндексе»: 5 510 739 Основная сфера деятельности Ксении Собчак — журналистика. Она работает главным редактором журнала L’Officiel, ведет на канале «Дождь» ток-шоу «Собчак живьем» (в июне 2017 года у нее в гостях побывали Алексей Навальный, Элла Панфилова и Виктор Батурин), пишет колонки в «Сноб».  На счету Собчак — интервью с Михаилом Фридманом, Михаилом Ходорковским, Евгенией Васильевой, Евгением Чичваркиным, Сергеем Полонским (интервью Собчак с Сергеем Шнуровым для Forbes читайте здесь).     Основной доход Собчак по-прежнему приносят ведение корпоративных мероприятий и рекламные контракты. Она также гастролирует по всей стране с мастер-классами «Теория успеха». Крупнейшие рекламные контракты — ЦУМ, JPoint (ювелирные украшения), «Терехов» (одежда), Prelox (средство для повышения потенции) и Dior Makeup. Большая часть доходов от рекламы приходится на интернет. Один ее рекламный пост в соцсетях стоит примерно €7000–8000 для товаров из люксового сегмента и от €10 000 для товаров массового спроса.   Ксения Собчак Рейтинг Forbes: №10 доходы: $2. 1млн No. 10. The 80 h. p. Morane Monoplane.   The best means for identification of this machine is its straight, angular wing tips and its landing chassis, which, as will be seen from the accompanying silhouette, has no skids. No. 12. The 80 h. p. Morane Monoplane   is similar to machine No. 10. No. 17. The 80 h. p. Morane Monoplane   is exactly similar to Nos. 10 and 12 No. 21. The 80 or 160 h. p. Morane Monoplane   will be similar in outward appearance to the other Moranes entered. THE MACHINES AND HOW TO RECOGNISE THEM. Nos. 10, 12, 17 and 21. The Morane-Saulnier Monoplanes are similar to the machines flown so successfully by Hamel, Noel and the late M. Marty, to mention just a few of the pilots who favour this machine. As scale drawings and a detailed description of the Morane-Saulnier monoplane have already appeared in the columns of FLIGHT, it is unnecessary to describe the machines in detail here. Suffice it to say that they are very fast, and as at least three of them are equipped with 80 h. p. engines, they should be particularly well matched. There is a possibility that Mr. Hamel will be using a 160 h. p. Gnome in his Morane, but failing to obtain this engine in time for the race, he will in all probability use the ordinary 80 h. p. type. Flight, May 29, 1914. GUSTAV HAMEL.   IT is with profound regret that we have been forced to the conclusion, as we state elsewhere, that Mr. Gustav Hamel came to an untimely end during his Channel trip which he started on Saturday morning last. Briefly the record of his movements shows that Hamel left Villacoublay at 4 40 a. m. on the new Morane monoplane with 80 h. p. Gnome monosoupape engine with which he proposed to compete in the Aerial Derby last Saturday afternoon. At 5. 22 he reached Le Crotoy, and having breakfasted, he left at 8. 30 for Hardelot, where he landed half an hour later. There he rested for a couple of hours, then had a light lunch, filled up the fuel and oil tanks of his machine, and left Hardelot at a quarter past 12. From that time nothing is known of the airman's movements, although the Cross-Channel steamer "Riviera" reported seeing an aeroplane flying in mid-Channel on Saturday afternoon.   Hamel was one who had done very much for the cause of aviation in this country. The son of a well-known English surgeon and a clever motor driver, it was not surprising that aviation should attract him. Having studied the question in France, he set to work and qualified for a French certificate on a Morane monoplane on February 3rd, 1911. Returning to England he repeated the necessary tests on a Bleriot monoplane, and obtained a British certificate on February t4th, 1911. He quickly showed that he was master of the Bleriot type of machine, and he was selected to pilot a Bleriot racing monoplane in the Gordon Bennet race at Eastchurch, in July, 1911. It will be recalled that on the morning of the event, a trial flight showed that the machine was slightly slower than some of his rivals' mounts.

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With the object of augmenting the speed, M. Bleriot decided to shorten the already very small wings, but, in the race, when rounding the first pylon, Hamel's machine side-slipped to the ground, no doubt owing to his taking too sharp a turn. The pilot was fortunately thrown clear and escaped with very severe concussion.   In July he took part in the Circuit of Britain, and after a good deal of engine trouble he was forced to retire at Dumfries. In the following September he took the principal part in the aerial post between Hendon and Windsor, flying in spite of the high winds. In the Aerial Derby of 1912 he secured the second place, last year seeing him a very popular winner of the event, whilst he was the favourite for the race which was to have been held last Saturday, the day of his disappearance. Of his many Cross-Channel trips, one of the most outstanding was that made in the course of his flight from Dover to Cologne on the Bleriot machine which was subsequently presented to the New Zealand Government.   In a match against Hucks over a course round Birmingham last August, Hamel secured a victory by a narrow margin. He won several races at Hendon, and his flying there and at Brooklands was always highly popular, especially since last November, when he added looping the loop on the Morane to his accomplishments, and he had the honour of twice being commanded to "loop" before the King at Windsor. Flight, July 17, 1914. THE LONDON-PARIS-LONDON AIR RACE.   ONCE more has Walter L. Brock "chewed" his way to victory, for the third of our big aviation events this year has fallen to this remarkable American flyer. As in the case of the Aerial Derby round London, and the London-Manchester-London races, Brock, as his fellow countrymen would put it, went straight for it and "got there" without any fuss or bother, and on each occasion he flew over the courses - which in two cases were quite unknown to him - under more or less unfavourable weather conditions with a remarkable degree of accuracy. This "hat trick" of his has, therefore, proved that he is undoubtedly a master of his art, and that his victory is not merely a question of luck alone. Credit is also due to his 80 h. p. Gnome-Morane-Saulnier and its makers, the Graharne-White Aviation Co. Although following the general design of the French machines, Brock's Morane - which, by the way, has done over 1,000 miles without any extensive repairs, possesses several modifications, mostly as regards dimensions Brock's win is also remarkable in that out of the six actual starters he and Garros alone completed the double journey the same day. Although only these two finished - with Renaux classed third on Sunday - it was none the less an interesting race, with several exciting incidents, whilst not a single serious accident marred the proceedings. Considerable interest was attached to the race on account of the entry of seven well-known continental flyers.   The first of these to arrive over here was Eugene Renaux, who flew over from Paris on a 120 h. p. Renault-Maurice Farman ("headless" type) with a passenger on Thursday, the 9th inst. Roland Garros, one of the favourites of the race, started from Paris at 4. 20 a. m. on Friday on his 80 h. p. Le Rhone-Morane Saulnier, arriving at Hendon at about 10 a. m. , after having made descents, owing to engine trouble, at Calais and in Kent. Helmuth Hirth, of Albatros fame, also started off on an 80 h. p. Le Rhone-Morane-Saulnier in company with Garros, and he too had engine trouble and descended near Surbiton, arriving at Hendon in the afternoon. The machine flown by Garros differed somewhat from the other Morane-Saulniers in the race, having a slightly modified chassis and a peculiar wing section not unlike that of the Nieuport, whilst Hirth's machine was similar to the one flown over here by Brindejonc de Moulinais. P. Daucourt, flying the 80 h. p. Clement Bayard monoplane, got as far as Crotoy, but was unable to continue to London. Lenoir on the 80 h. p. Ponnier monoplane damaged his machine at Courtenay on his way to London, whilst M. A. Parmelin on the 80 h. p. Deperdussin monoplane, after departing from Villacoublay for London, fell and smashed his machine when only just outside the aerodrome, fortunately without injury to himself.   Several test and speed flights were made at Hendon on Friday last by Garros, Carbery (80 h. p. Le Rhone-Bristol scout biplane), R. H. Carr and W. L. Brock. The former's machine developing engine trouble, mechanics, superintended by M. Saulnier himself, worked on the engine up to a late hour. R. R. Skene left Brooklands for Hendon on the 120 h. p. Martinsyde, but descended at Potter's Bar owing to engine trouble. Early in the afternoon, whilst Louis Noel was looking over his machine, he discovered that the petrol tank was leaking, and the rest of the evening was spent in putting it right.   Everyone was agog early on Saturday morning, and by 5. 30 a. m. a good many people were on the ground. The weather was not at all promising, and it looked as though the elements were going to be unkind for the third time. Although there was a slight breeze and the sun was making every effort to show itself, a thick mist and clouds hung around the aerodrome at a low altitude, so low, in fact, that when Garros went up for a test flight at 5. 45 a. m. he disappeared among the clouds at an altitude of scarcely more than 100 ft. Shortly before 6. 30 a. m. Hirth made a test flight on his Morane-Saulnier, but his engine was running so badly that on landing it was partly taken down in order to locate the trouble. As there was but little improvement in the weather, the start was postponed to 7. 30, and even at this hour it was as bad as ever. Reports from Dover being favourable, however, it was decided to make a start. Skene was expected at any moment, but by now there was little hope of any of the missing continental pilots arriving. The starting times and handicaps of the remaining competitors were as follows :- No. Pilot and Machine. Handicap. Clock Start (a. m. ).    h. m.

Morane-Saulnier G/H - Their Flying Machines

h. m.    (80 h. p. Bleriot monoplane) 3 18 7 30 12. E youtubemusic.club/p/onlayn-kazino-ruletka-golden. E. Renaux, with Miss Unwin as passenger    (120 h. p. Maurice Farman biplane) 2 21 7 35 7. Louis Noel (80 h. p. Morane-Saulnier mono. ) 1 43 7 40 6. W. L. Brock (80h. p. Morane-Saulnier mono. ) 1 36 7 45 8. R. H. Carr (80 h. p. Morane-Saulnier mono. ) 1 30 7 50 3. H. Hirth (80 h. p. Morane-Saulnier mono. ) 1 18 (non start) 10. R. R. Skene (120 h. p. Martinsyde mono. ) 0 32 (non start) 2. R. Garros (80 h. p. Morane-Saulnier mono. ) 0 32 8 5 1. Lord Carbery (80 h. p. Bristol biplane) scratch 8 10   Hearn, who employed a Rubery Owen quick release, did not get more than a few hundred yards before his engine stopped, and after a short interval he made another start, but descended on completing a couple of circuits of the aerodrome, and retired from the race. Renaux and his passenger were soon lost to view in the mist, but he had not been gone very long when he was seen returning. On landing he informed us that he was unable to find his way, as he could not see the ground at all, and so he decided to return. He made a second start, however, about an hour later. Carr, Brock and Noel all got away in fine style, but Hitth still had trouble with his engine, and so retired. The next man to start, therefore, was Garros, as Skene had not turned up. Garros misunderstood the signal to start and lost a few seconds in getting away, whilst his engine still appeared to give trouble. The last to go off was Carbery on the Bristol, and he got away in a very shaky manner, the machine being heavily loaded with petrol and oil. With the exception of Renaux and Garros all the starters wore Boddy life-saving jackets, which made them look somewhat like skippers of flying life-boats.   The last of the competitors having gone, it remained but to await news of progress along the route, and in the meantime to partake of breakfast, which, thanks to the excellent catering arrangements on the ground, was an easy and pleasant matter.   By now the weather was clearing, and giving promise of a hot and sunny day. Very shortly news came to hand that Brock had passed over Epsom at 8. 2 a. m. and was flying well, whilst Garros was seen circling over Epsom Downs as though he was uncertain of his direction. A little later we heard that Carr had lost his way and had descended at Kenton, near Harrow, and that Noel had come to grief at Camber, near Rye. Noel had already started on the Channel trip when the petrol pipe broke, so he immediately turned and glided back to shore, just managing to land some 300 yards from the sea. After waiting about an hour at Kenton, Carr resumed his journey and descended once more near Dymchurch, near Hythe, where he decided to abandon the race and return to Hendon, and on landing at Ashford (Kent) on the return journey he damaged the landing chassis. There were now only four in the race, and many began to doubt if any would get to Paris, let alone return to Hendon.   Renaux landed at Epsom to enquire his way, and also at Gravesend. Brock passed over Boulogne at 9. 15 a. m. , Garros at 9. 50 a. m. , and Carbery at 10. 19 a. m. Brock landed at Hardelot at 9. 24 a. m. to fill up with petrol, and departed 15 mins. later, arriving at Buc 11. 18 a. m. Carbery was the next to reach Paris, landing at 12. 4, five mins. ahead of Garros. Brock got away immediately his two hours' compulsory stop was up, but Garros lost some considerable time in starting on the return journey, as the engine had to be overhauled (a new magneto and propeller were fitted). On the return journey Brock reached Hardelot at about three o'clock, where he stayed 12 mins. in order to fill up with petrol, and passed over Folkestone at 3. 45 p. m.

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, Epsom at 4. 28 p. m. , arriving at Hendon at 4 h. 48 m. 6 s. , his average speed for the whole journey being 71 m. p. h. Needless to say, the reception he got was tremendous, and the scene immediately after his landing was one to be remembered. Long before the machine came to rest it was surrounded by an enthusiastic crowd that overwhelmed him with greetings and questions. The machine at last came to rest close to No. 1 pylon, and Brock stood up in his seat, silent, but smiling and chewing. First he took off his "Boddy" jacket, and then felt in his pocket and produced a letter, which he delivered to someone in a casual sort of way. His next procedure was to return his small pocket camera, which together with his foot rule he always carries with him wherever he goes, to its case. He then produced a large packet of records, and another letter, which he duly handed over to an official, and then surrendered himself to those awaiting to chair him. All this time he was silent, smiling, and chewing! Brock, guess you're some marvel! Although Brock was the first home, it was still a matter of 15 minutes before he could be declared the winner of the trophy, for Garros started that much behind him, and so the Frenchman had a chance of winning if he reached Hendon within that time. However, it soon became apparent that Garros would not be able to get in soon enough, for it was announced that he had passed over Folkestone at 5. 12 p. m. , and so Brock was presented with the trophy by. Lady Reid, the wife of Sir George Reid, High Commissioner for Australia. Speeches were made by Claude Grahame-White, Sir George Reid, and - a very, very short one - by Brock. Grahame-White referred to the nationality of the event, a British built machine of French design piloted by an American, and said that this kind of flight would in a very short time be quite a common occurrence - lunch in Paris and back in London for tea. He also made brief reference to the all-British attempt for the Atlantic flight.   An amusing and perhaps alarming incident occurred whilst the speechmaking was in progress, for Verrier, who was "stunting" on his Maurice Farman, suddenly swooped down over the presentation group, causing several to scatter in all directions. At about 6. 20 p. m. Garros was sighted approaching in the direction of the Welsh Harp, which seemed to indicate that he had not passed Harrow, so when he landed he was asked if he had, and not being sure, he started off immediately to do so, returning soon after, and crossing the line at 6 h. 28 m. 47 s. , thus obtaining second place. In the meanwhile it had been announced that Carbery had left Hardelot at 4. 55 p. m. , and should arrive at Hendon at about seven o'clock. News also came to hand that Renaux had arrived at Paris at 2. 48 p. m. , having passed Folkestone at 11. 8 a. m. , and Boulogne at 11. 39 a. m. After a stop of two hours he resumed his journey, and landed at Boulogne at 7. 45 p. m. , still with his passenger. For some time after the hour at which he was expected, there was no news of Carbery, and some considerable anxiety was felt as to his safety. The Admiralty was communicated with, as it was feared that he had fallen into the Channel. Shortly before nine o'clock it was ascertained that this was the case, but happily the pilot was safe and sound. It appeared that whilst crossing the Channel, engine trouble developed so the pilot made for a tramp steamer, and as he did so his engine gave out. He planed down and alighted on the water as close to the steamer as possible, and was soon picked up by the latter dry and unhurt. The machine, in a damaged condition, was also salved. Later Lord Carbery was transferred to H. M. S. "St. Vincent," where he was well looked after by the officers, and eventually landed on Folkestone Pier.   E. Renaux, with Miss Unwin as passenger, left Boulogne on Sunday at 9. 30 a. m. for Hendon, via Calais, arriving at Hendon at 12. 25 P. m. He was thus the third pilot to return, and was therefore allotted third prize in the handicap. Thus ended the first London-Paris-London Air Race. Notes of the Race.   Each of the starters carried a letter from the French Ambassador in London to the British Ambassador in Paris. Brock brought back from Paris a reply which was delivered to M. Morand.   On arriving at Paris, Brock handed over a number of postcards, stamped and addressed, and asked someone to post them for him. He soon found an old friend in Sabelli, and had a chat with him over old times whilst partaking of some refreshment. Throughout the whole journey, Brock never flew higher than 2,000 ft.   At Buc aerodrome there were many well-known personages connected with aviation, amongst whom may be mentioned M. and Mme. Bleriot, MM. C. T, Weymann, P. Prier, Jules Vedrines, Molla, Deutsch de la Meurth, Farman (sen. ), and Sanchez, &c.   The following is a complete time-table of the race from start to finish, whilst elsewhere will be found further particulars of the flying at Hendon on Thursday, during the race, and on the Sunday following :- Result of First London-Paris-London Air Race. Prizes. - Fastest Time: Trophy and L500 presented by the International Correspondence Schools.

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W. L. Brock (80 h. p. Gnome-Morane-Saulnier monoplane). Handicap. -1st, L300, presented by the Royal Aero Club; 2nd, L150; and 3rd, L50, Presented by the International Correspondence Schools. Times of Competitors    Dep. Epsom. Boulogne Arr. Dep. Folkestone Epsom. Arr. W. L. Brock 7 45 8 2 9 15 11 18 1 18 3 45 4 28 4 48 6 R. Garros 8 5 8 27 9 50 12 10 2 35 5 12 5 55 6 33 47 J. Carbery 8 10 - 10 19 12 4 2 4+ - - - E. Renaux 7 35* 9 15 11 9 2 49 4 49++ Sunday aft. , 12 25. *Actually started at 8. 23 a. m. +Descended in mid-Channel.    Handicap Time. Flying Time. Average Speed,    h. m. s. h. m. s. m. p. h. 1. W. L. Brock 5 27 6 7 3 6 71. 5 2. R. Garros 7 56 47 8 28 47 58. 8 3. E. Renaux 24 34 0 26 55 0 - Flying Times Between London and Paris.    London-Paris. Paris-London. Total. W. L. Brock 3 33 24 3 29 42 7 3 6 R. Garros 4 5 42 4 23 15 8 28 57 J. Carbery 3 54 0 - - E. Renaux 7 14 50 19 40 10 - Flight, November 13, 1914. WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY AND AIRCRAFT.   BEARING in mind the great part which scouting by aero planes has played in the present war, and the necessity for means of communication to and from the reconnoitering machine, a description of one of the systems of wireless installations fitted to aircraft should be of interest to our readers. It may be useful, first of all, to briefly sketch the elementary principles of wireless telegraphy for the benefit of those who may be unacquainted with this important method of communication. The fundamental basis of wireless telegraphy consists of the following electric phenomenon. If an electric current flowing through a circuit consisting, say, of a coil of wire, is intermittently interrupted, or if the direction of flow of the current alternates, a varying magnetic field will be set up round the circuit which will induce secondary currents in an entirely independent circuit placed some distance away from the first or primary circuit. Thus, a telephone receiver inserted in the secondary circuit will respond to these interruptions or reversals of current in the primary circuit. The distance at which the secondary circuit can be so affected is somewhat limited, but similar forms of induction -over great distances can be caused by means of electro-magnetic waves produced by the surging backwards and forwards of an electric current in a length of wire termed an "aerial. " These waves, which have the velocity of light, are known as Hertzian waves, and are employed in the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy. How these waves are brought about and caused to transmit messages, may briefly be explained with the help of the accompanying diagrams. Fig. 1 shows the simplest form of transmitting and receiving apparatus, in which A represents the aerial, a long wire carried by a mast and insulated from the earth. The lower end of the aerial is connected to one of a pair of spark balls, S, of an induction coil, I. The other spark ball is connected by a wire to the earth, E. When a primary current from the battery, B, is made to flow through the induction coil, the aerial is charged with a high tension current until the latter breaks through the air space between the spark balls, S, in the form of a spark. The aerial then discharges itself, the current oscillating backwards and forwards from the elevated aerial and the earth MM the spark gap, each oscillation diminishing in strength until they die out altogether, when the aerial is charged again as before. Each of these trains of oscillations in the aerial produces a similar train of Hertzian waves, which radiate from the aerial into space, like ripples caused by a stone dropped into water. So long as a primary current flows through the induction coil, so as to produce a regular series of sparks at the spark gap, a constant train of waves is emitted from the transmitting aerial, but any interruptions in the primary current cause similar interruptions in the waves. By inserting a Morse key, K. , in the primary circuit, therefore, the waves can be broken up into long or short trains instead of continuous ones, thus producing "dash" and "dot" signals. The apparatus for receiving these signals consists of an aerial, A\ with its lower end connected to one terminal of a "detector," D, the other terminal of which is connected to the earth, B. Also connected to the terminals of the detector is a telephone receiver, R, in series with a battery, B\ the voltage of which can be varied. When the waves from the transmitting aerial strike the receiving aerial, they induce oscillations in the latter corresponding to those originating from the former. These induced oscillating currents flow from the aerial to the earth through the detector, and thereby modify the direct current flowing from the battery through the telephone receiver and the detector, in response to the "dash" and "dot" signals. Although the type of apparatus just described is not employed in modern wireless installations, owing to its limited range of action, and other disadvantages, the general principles are the same - in fact, it might be said that the modern system is only the old one elaborated. This is illustrated by Figs. 2 and 3, which show diagrammatically a modern transmitting and receiving set, in its simplest form. There are, of course, various modifications in detail in the systems now in use, such as tuning devices, wave detectors, rotary spark gaps, &c, which cannot, in the space at our disposal, be dealt with in this article, but the following system can be treated as forming the basis of modern land and air systems. Referring to the transmitting circuit, Fig. 2, instead of employing an induction coil for providing the oscillating high tension currents in the aerial, an alternating dynamo or alternator, D, generates an alternating current at a comparatively low voltage, and this current is transformed by the induction transformer, T, into a high tension oscillating current. The latter charges a parallel plate condenser, C, until a spark jumps across the air gap between the spark balls, S, and then the condenser discharges itself through a primary inductance coil, I, setting up the surging or oscillating currents which induce similar ones in the secondary inductance coil of the aerial, A, and thus produce the Hertzian waves. The "dash" and "dot" signals are produced as before by means of a Morse key, K, inserted in the alternator circuit. The receiving circuit, Fig. 3, consists of an aerial, A1, connected to the earth, E, through a primary inductance coil, J, sometimes known as a "jigger.

" The train of waves striking the aerial set up oscillating currents in the jigger primary coil, inducing similar ones in the jigger secondary, which is connected to the terminals of a condenser, C. Also connected to the terminals of the latter is a detector, D, in series with which is another condenser, C2, whilst the telephone receiver, R, and battery, B, are connected to the terminals of this second condenser. The detector is so adjusted that the induced oscillating currents discharged from C flow through it only in one direction, and so charge the condenser, C2, in a series of pulsations, which make themselves felt in the telephone circuit in the form of a click in the receiver for each pulsation, corresponding to the wave trains. The battery supplies a steady flow of current through the telephone receiver and detector, as in the first apparatus, via the jigger secondary.   Having thus given a crude idea as to how wireless "works," attention may be given to its application to aircraft. Several difficulties are in the way of its successful application in this direction; for instance, it is of course impossible to have any earth connections, as in the systems just described, whilst the weight, and therefore the capacity, of the installation has to be cut as low as possible - although in the case of dirigibles this is not such a vital matter. Again, the noise and vibration of the engine on an aeroplane interferes considerably with the receiving of messages. These and other difficulties, however, are gradually being overcome, but to all intents and purposes aerial wireless telegraphy is still in the experimental stage.   The transmitting and receiving systems for aircraft are much the same as those for land work just described, the main difference being in the absence of the earth connections. In place of the latter, some other conductor must be employed, and this generally takes the form of what is known as a counterpoise capacity. This either consists of a system of insulated wires run round the machine, as shown in Fig. 4, or else all the metal parts of the machine are electrically connected, and form the conductor. The aerial is suspended below the machine, and is weighted at the end in order to keep it taut and as vertical as possible. It is generally attached to a windlass so that it may be wound up out of action when necessary.   The Marconi equipment, which has proved quite successful, shown in Figs. 5 and 6, fitted to a Morane-Saulnier monoplane, is remarkable for its lightness and compact form.   The equipment is made up of three main units, Fig. 5, placed in the cockpit of the machine in front of the pilot and passenger, consisting of a high frequency alternator and rotary disc-discharger, A, a transmitting set, B, and receiving set, C. The alternator is run by a belt drive from the motor of the aeroplane, and is claimed to absorb less than two-thirds of one horse-power. It can be supported by a horizontal tube at X and with the lugs at Y, in which case the supporting pedestal shown is not required.   The total weight of the generator and spark discharger is 80 lbs. The transmitting unit is contained in a polished case of hard wood, and weighs 84 lbs. , whilst the portable receiving set is exceptionally light, weighing less than 20 lbs. The complete weight of the entire three units is under 184 lbs.   Using the cabane as a mast, the aerial, C, is run in the form of a triangle around the machine, as shown. Commencing at the pilot's cockpit, it goes to the tail, from there to the right-hand wing tip, the pylon, B, the left-hand wing tip, and back to the tail, where a further length of wire trails from the tail-skid. This trailing-wire is so connected that should it become entangled with any obstacle, a slight pull is sufficient to sever it from its connection. Spare aerials are carried to replace those so lost.   A counterpoise capacity is employed in place of the "earth" connection or in place of a second aerial as sometimes used on biplanes. All parts are thoroughly insulated so as to avoid any possibility of receiving electric shocks. The transmitting key, switches for changing over from transmitting to receiving and vice versa, and all tuning adjustments are conveniently placed on the right hand side of both pilot and passenger within easy reach of both. These three units are shown in detail in Fig. 6, and most of the component parts previously mentioned in this article will be located in the Figure. Flight, March 5, 1915. Mr. W. J. Clark's Morane-Saulnler scale model.   The model shown in the two photographs is a quarter scale model taken from drawings which have appeared in FLIGHT. Span 7 ft. 7. 5 ins. ; length 5 ft. 4. 5 ins. ; chord 1 ft. 6 ins. It is driven by a 1/2 h. p. petrol motor, which has not yet been tested, as our correspondent has up to now been too busy. "A friend and myself," says Mr. Clark, "started the Epsom Aero Club about eight months ago, but as several of our members joined the Colours We shall be glad to receive their names, &c, for publication , it has weakened us a lot, but we hope to pull it up again when times are brighter, and to be able to send you a few more photos, of the models we are constructing. " Flight, March 26, 1915. EDDIES.   FIRING with a machine gun between the blades of a propeller revolving at something like 1,200 r. p. m. strikes one as being a tricky, not to say risky, pastime, but I have it on good authority that it is the latest exploit of R. Garros the famous French pilot. As to how it is accomplished, at the present time wild horses shall not drag it from me, but the method is extremely neat and simple, and the result is said to have been the bringing down of two Taubes. According to a patent specification in a German paper, an inventive genius over there has patented a device for enabling a machine gun to be fired through the disc area of the propeller by gearing up the trigger of the quick-firer to the engine in such a manner that when a propeller blade is in line with the gun a lock prevents the shot from being fired until the blade has passed out of the line of fire. It is very simple in theory, but difficulties are, I think, more than likely to arise in practice, and I must confess that I do not envy the gunner his task. Flight, April 9, 1915. EDDIES.   The first of the series of Morane monoplanes being built by the Grahame-White Aviation Co. have now been completed, and several of them have already been delivered. One of these was put through her acceptance trials last week by Flight Lieutenant B. C. Hucks. Hucks' handling of the Morane is said by those who witnessed it to be absolutely masterly, and the machine, as one would expect from a firm like the G. -W. A. Co. , did right well in the tests. As to figures, well these for the time being are best left alone - what with an Editor and a Censor always on the alert, the ways of a staff contributor are far from easy. "AEOLUS. " CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS. -IX.   The Morane-Saulnier chassis, already referred to, is shown at the bottom of one of our pages. Viewed from the side it is a simple V, while viewed from in front it represents the letter M. The various members, which are streamline steel tubes, are welded together and form a structure of immense strength. At the top they are joined to steel clips gripping the lower longerons of the body, while at the bottom the outer members are welded together, the angle between them being filled up with a web plate, in which is a slot for the accommodation of the upward travel of the two stub axles, when running over rough ground. Below the portion of the axles that projects through this slot is a short lug to which are anchored the rubber shock absorbers. The inner pair of the four front chassis struts converge towards the centre, where they are welded together and flattened out to accommodate the two transverse members of the chassis between which the axles mine. A bolt passing through from front to back at this point keeps the apex of the inner Vee in place and serves at the same time as a pivot for the stub axles. Another constructional detail which is worth mentioning is the hollow protuberance in the angle between the centre struts, and to which the stay cables are secured by means of adjustment bolts in the manner shown in one of our detail sketches.
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